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修辞目的题技巧解读-董蓝旗

作者:董蓝旗 2019-07-31 18:20 来源:武汉新航道
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北美考试院托福阅读组-董蓝旗


修辞目的题(rhetorical purpose questions)是托福阅读中难度较大的题型之一。这种题型对于国内考生来说较为陌生,有的同学刷了很多题,但是遇到该题型,做题还是“看缘分”。甚至有同学会把该题型和句子简化题弄混。虽然这两个题型都在文中标记了阴影句,但是题干表述明显不同,句子简化题题干固定,修辞目的题题干一般用“why does the author mention...”或者“the author mentions... in order to”。本文将简要解释该题的出题原理,并详细阐述其常考的基本类型,为大家揭秘该难题如何攻克。

 

1.什么是修辞?

每次在课上跟同学们引出该题型的名称,“修辞目的”,很多同学心里就有了疑惑,“什么是修辞?”根据我们在语文课上学的知识,"比喻、拟人、排比、对偶、移情"等等,这些才是修辞。联想到语文课的修辞概念,很多同学更是不解了,“平时看托福阅读文章,并未见过以上修辞手法啊,难道中英文修辞不一样?”没错,托福阅读中的修辞含义确实不同,根据官方指南(official guide)中的说法,修辞目的题中的修辞,是指“有效写作或演讲的艺术”。这里我们可以说,修辞指的就是我们写作常用的论证手法,包括举例子、下定义、阐述、解释、对比、反驳、强调、批评等。

 

2.修辞目的题在考什么?

受国内语文阅读的影响,很多同学在做修辞目的题时,以为要像古诗词鉴赏一样,根据文中的描写,揣测作者表达的感情色彩,选择文中没有点明的意思,这样做题一错再错。

在分析修辞目的题的考点之前,我们先思考以下问题:我们在写托福写作时(议论文),写例子、解释、强调等,我们身为一个作者,目的是什么?这时大家会想到,我们的写作目的是为了论证自己的观点。那我们的观点是文章的什么?是主旨,或者中心。

现在,我们回到修辞目的题,托福阅读大多也是议论文,作者和我们也是一样的,写例子、解释、强调等,都是为了论证自己的观点,即段落主旨,且写作论证的时候要注意前后逻辑的连贯,所以,我们也可以认为,目的题在考查题目所给的阴影部分和前后文的逻辑关系。

 

3.修辞目的题的题目分类

修辞目的题按提问对象分大致可分三类:一是问细节的目的;二是问段落目的;三是问段落组织结构。根据根据阴影部分所在句的特征,细节目的题可以分为:阴影部分所在句有逻辑词和无逻辑词的情况,以下统计图是TPO1-54的目的题各大类型分布情况


232.png


3.1         细节目的

1)有逻辑词

修辞目的中常考的逻辑分为:举例,因果,对比,转折等,举例是修辞目的题中出现最多、代表性最强的一类,我们以考查举例的目的题为引子,来看该题型的基本解法。

根据我们的写作经验,例子一般是为了证明前面的论点的。有的例子之前就直接是论点,有的例子可能和论点还有一定距离,这个时候的论点一般是本段的主旨。那么,我们在做题时,要分以下步骤进行:

step1:先找到例子所在的句子,并理解例子;

step2:理解例子之前的一句话

step3:验证选项

step4:如果无法选择,找到本段主旨,观察主旨和例子是否有关。

我们结合以上步骤,来看下面这道例题。

例题:

TPO5-1 Minerals and Plants(举例)

 

12.Why does the author mention “Indian mustard”?

A.To warn about possible risks involved in phytoremediation

B.To help illustrate the potential of phytoremediation

C.To show that hyperaccumulating plants grow in many regions of the world

D.To explain how zinc contamination can be reduced

 

Only recently have investigators considered using these plants to clean up soil and waste sites that have been contaminated by toxic levels of heavy metals–an environmentally friendly approach known as phytoremediation. This scenario begins with the planting of hyperaccumulating species in the target area, such as an abandoned mine or an irrigation pond contaminated by runoff. Toxic minerals would first be absorbed by roots but later relocated to the stem and leaves. A harvest of the shoots would remove the toxic compounds off site to be burned or composted to recover the metal for industrial uses. After several years of cultivation and harvest, the site would be restored at a cost much lower than the price of excavation and reburial, the standard practice for remediation of contaminated soils. For examples, in field trials, the plant alpine pennycress removed zinc and cadmium from soils near a zinc smelter, and Indian mustard, native to Pakistan and India, has been effective in reducing levels of selenium salts by 50 percent in contaminated soils.

Step1:先找到例子所在的句子,并理解例子

For examples, in field trials, the plant alpine pennycress removed zinc and cadmium from soils near a zinc smelter, and Indian mustard, native to Pakistan and India, has been effective in reducing levels of selenium salts by 50 percent in contaminated soils.

举例来说,在实地试验中,高山菥蓂去除了一个锌冶炼厂附近土壤中的锌和镉,原产自巴基斯坦和印度的印度芥菜,可以将染土壤中硒含量有效地降低50%。

Step2: 理解例子之前的一句话

After several years of cultivation and harvest, the site would be restored at a cost much lower than the price of excavation and reburial, the standard practice for remediation of contaminated soils.

经过几年的种植和收割,该污染点将被修复,而其造价远比修复污染土壤的标准做法——挖掘和填埋来得低。

Step3: 验证选项

ABC选项中均出现了没有见过的单词phytoremediation, hyperaccumulating plants, D选项提到的内容和Indian mustard无关,zinc是和pennycress相关的,无法选出答案

Step4:无法做出选择,找到本段主旨,观察主旨和例子是否有关。

本段首句提到了phytoremediation(一种方法),是用hyperaccumulating plants来治理被污染的区域,后面是该方法的具体流程,最后是举例说明,本段的主旨是phytoremdiation,且例子确实是在具体解释该方法,最后根据选项的具体表述,答案选B。 A提到的risks不对,C提到的世界很多区域都有hyperaccumulating植物,本段未讲。

其他逻辑类型的目的题,理解相关逻辑链,即可得出答案,本文篇幅有限,暂时不多做赘述。

1)无逻辑词

上一道例题,可以直接根据举例逻辑词的指引,往前阅读,得出答案,但是很多同学备

考中较为困惑的是,阴影句如果没有这么明显的逻辑词,该怎么办?

例题:

TPO 28 - 1 Groundwater

1.In paragraph 1, why does the author mention “the pressure of the overlying rock”?

A. To show how water can be forced deep under Earth’s surface

B. To show why groundwater is more plentiful than surface freshwater

C. To correct a commonly made error about the location of groundwater

D.To explain why most groundwater lies near Earth’s surface

 

Most of the world’s potable water----freshwater suitable for drinking----is accounted for by groundwater, which is stored in the pores and fractures in rocks. There is more than 50 times as much freshwater stored underground than in all the freshwater rivers and lakes at the surface. Nearly 50 percent of all groundwater is stored in the upper 1,000 meters of Earth. At greater depths within Earth, the pressure of the overlying rock causes pores and cracks to close, reducing the space that pore water can occupy, and almost complete closure occurs at a depth of about 10 kilometers. The greatest water storage, therefore, lies near the surface.

我们可以看到,阴影所在的句子本身,没有任何逻辑词,我们还是来分步骤进行。

Step1:理解阴影所在句子

At greater depths within Earth, the pressure of the overlying rock causes pores and cracks to close, reducing the space that pore water can occupy, and almost complete closure occurs at a depth of about 10 kilometers.

随深度增加,上覆岩层压力使岩石孔隙和裂缝闭合,减少了水的储存空间,而超过10公里深的地下孔隙几乎全部闭合。

结合之前提到的修辞目的题考查本质:段落主旨或者阴影句与前后的逻辑关系。找主旨需要理解整段信息来判断,耗时较久,我们先来看该句,和前后文是否有逻辑关系。

Step2:理解阴影部分的前后句子

阴影句的前文提到,Nearly 50 percent of all groundwater is stored in the upper 1,000 meters of Earth.

大约50%的地下水存在于地下深1000m以内的地层中。

后文提到,The greatest water storage, therefore, lies near the surface.

因此,绝大部分水储存于接近地表的地层中。

Step3:判断阴影句和前文还是后文有关系

我们可以看到,后文中出现了therefore,和阴影句形成了因果关系,我们先结合该关系,看是否能选出答案。

Step4:验证选项

经过对4个选项的理解,符合该因果关系表述的,是D选项。

 

看完这道例题,有的同学又有了新的疑问,阴影句没有逻辑词时,前后文一定会有逻辑词吗?如果前后文也没有逻辑词,我们又该如何做目的题?

例题:

TPO39-2 The Extinction of Moa

5.Why does the author include the information "Climatic conditions in New Zealand appear to have been relatively stable over the period during which moa became extinct"?

A. To eliminate what might seem to be a plausible explanation of the extinction of moa.

B. To explain why some moa species may still have existed at the time of Captain Cook's first visit to New Zealand.

C. To explain why, in the late 1700s, moa most likely lived in remote areas of New Zealand.

D.To suggest that climate conditions in New Zealand varied widely when moa were plentiful.

 

It seems possible that when Captain James Cook first visited New Zealand in 1769, moa (or at least one of the moa species) may have still survived in the remote areas in the western part of New Zealand's South Island. If so, these individuals would have been the last of their kind. Climatic conditions in New Zealand appear to have been relatively stable over the period during which moa became extinct . Different factors could have worked in concert to account for their abrupt disappearance.

我们可以看到,阴影句以及其前后句,都没有明显的逻辑词,我们来分步骤进行。

Step1:理解阴影所在句子

Climatic conditions in New Zealand appear to have been relatively stable over the period during which moa became extinct .

新西兰的气候条件在恐鸟灭绝期间似乎是相对稳定的。

Step2:理解阴影部分的前后句子

阴影句的前文提到, If so, these individuals would have been the last of their kind.

如果是这样,这些恐鸟可能是最后的恐鸟。

后文提到,Different factors could have worked in concert to account for their abrupt disappearance.

多种不同因素一起导致了它们的突然消失。

Step3:判断阴影句和前文还是后文有关系

上一道例题,我们判断关系的标准是逻辑词,这是前后文都无逻辑词,但是我们通过理解句意发现,阴影句本身提到的是恐鸟灭绝,前文提到的是恐鸟还存在,最后一句提到的是恐鸟灭绝,经过信息对比,我们可以判定,阴影句和后文有联系,因为有重复信息出现。

Step4:验证选项

根据以上句子的理解,我们发现本段是想探讨恐鸟灭绝的原因,但是气候变化并不是,所以答案选A。

如果有的同学对该理解有疑惑,我们还可以根据本文主旨进行选择,本文讲的是恐鸟的灭绝,提到该主旨的只有A选项。

 

根据以上练习,我们来总结无逻辑类型的修辞目的题做题步骤:

Step1:理解阴影所在句子

Step2:理解阴影部分的前后句子

Step3:判断阴影句和前文还是后文有关系

Step4:验证选项以及结合段落主旨

 

3.2 段落目的

段落目的题,在TPO出现频次较低,占比10%,很多同学看到该类型的目的题时,并不能明白题目的意思,我们来通过以下例题,明白该类型的出题套路。

TPO45-1The Beringia Landscape

4.The purpose of paragraph 3 is to

A.contrast today’s Beringian landscape with other landscapes in the American continent

B.describe the Beringian landscape during the last ice age

C.explain why so many Beringian species became extinct during the last ice age

D.summarize the information about Beringia that historians agree on

 

The Beringian landscape was very different from what it is today. Broad, windswept valleys; glaciated mountains; sparse vegetation; and less moisture created a rather forbidding land mass. This land mass supported herds of now-extinct species of mammoth, bison, and horse and somewhat modern versions of caribou, musk ox, elk, and saiga antelope. These grazers supported in turn a number of impressive carnivores, including the giant short-faced bear, the saber-tooth cat, and a large species of lion.

该题的本质是在问第三段的主旨,我们需要通读本段,总结主旨大意,同时还要结合主旨句出现位置的一般规律。本段首句提到了Beringian的地貌过去和今天是有差别的,后文是具体描述该地区的植被特征(地貌特征),从而证明该地区曾经养育了很多大型哺乳动物。根据以上总结,我们选择答案B。需要注意的是,第一句提到了过去和现在的不同,会让大家对A选项的contrast有一定的怀疑,但是A选项对比对象错误,原文提到的是Beringian的过去和现在,A选项提到的是Beringian和美洲大陆的其他地方,且本段侧重的也不是对比。

通过该题要提醒大家的是,虽然主旨句出现在首句的几率很高,但是为了让大家对主旨理解的更准确,后面的句子还是要看,理解每句话的主干,看后文是不是在对主旨句进行展开论证。

本题虽然是段落目的,看主旨可以直接做出来,但是根据目的题的考查本质——前后文逻辑,引用到段落目的上来,就是注意前后段和本段的逻辑联系,也可以做出该题

TPO45-1The Beringia Landscape第二段

It is through Beringia that small groups of large mammal hunters, slowly expanding their hunting territories, eventually colonized North and South America. On this archaeologists generally agree, but that is where the agreement stops. One broad area of disagreement in explaining the peopling of the Americas is the domain of paleoecologists, but it is critical to understanding human history: what was Beringia like?

本段最后一句,直接引出了第三段的主旨。

总而言之,段落目的的本质就是在考段落主旨,大家做题的时候以考查的段落为主,有时还需结合上一段的主旨大意。

 

3.3段落结构

段落结构题在TPO中出现的频次也很低,13%。很多同学做到该题,会直接放弃,因为不知道该题究竟在考查什么。一般本题题干中会出现organization/organize。其实本题的考查本质还是段落大意。

例题:TPO24-3 Moving into Pueblos

4.Which of the following best indicates the organization of paragraph 1?

A. It presents the conditions that caused a change in a population' s living patterns and then explains why those conditions got worse.

 

B. It identifies certain present-day cultural traditions and rules and then traces them to their roots in the thirteenth century.

 

C.It casts doubt on one explanation of the move to pueblos and then introduces an alternative explanation that the passage will defend.

 

D.It describes a major change in a population' s living patterns and then presents a number of problems that resulted from that change.

 

In the Mesa Verde area of the ancient North American Southwest, living patterns changed in the thirteenth century, with large numbers of people moving into large communal dwellings called pueblos, often constructed at the edges of canyons, especially on the sides of cliffs. Abandoning small extended-family households to move into these large pueblos with dozens if not hundreds of other people was probably traumatic. Few of the cultural traditions and rules that today allow us to deal with dense populations existed for these people accustomed to household autonomy and the ability to move around the landscape almost at will. And besides the awkwardness of having to share walls with neighbors, living in aggregated pueblos introduced other problems. For people in cliff dwellings, hauling water, wood, and food to their homes was a major chore. The stress on local resources, especially in the firewood needed for daily cooking and warmth, was particularly intense, and conditions in aggregated pueblos were not very hygienic.

根据本段首句,我们看到,13世纪,北美某地区的居住模式发生了变化,人们搬到了新的地方,后文提到了搬到新地方人们遇到的一些问题,主要是生活方面的。

根据以上分析,我们选择D选项。

 

4.总结

本文从修辞的定义入手,剖析了修辞目的题的考查本质,并详细阐述了该题型的分类和具体解法,不管是哪种类型的目的题,如果大家在解题过程中遇到了障碍,那么段落和文章主旨是最好的辅助,这也印证了托福阅读的考查核心之一——段落主旨的理解,主旨考查并不仅仅局限在六选三概述题中,目的题也是主旨的一个呈现。希望大家可以从本文中有所收益,在平时做题和考试中,层层剖析,选出正确选项,最终取得阅读高分。


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